MOCK TEST 2

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Which of the following investigation is done to diagnose typhoid in a ...

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so blood taken earlier will give a negative result. Antibody titers increases steadily till the 3rd or the 4th week, after which it declines gradually. So Widal test used for the m

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2013-11-16 10:40:15
following investigation done diagnose typhoid patient after days onset fever Widal Blood culturec Stool cultured Urine cultureFollowing typhoid infection agglutinins usually appear byend1st week blood taken earlier will givenegative result Antibody titers increases steadily till3rd or4th week after declines gradually Widal test used formeasurementH agglutinins for typhoid and paratyphoid bacillidone after weeksonsetfevertiter againstO antigen 1:320 and againstH antigen 1:640considered positiveReference:TextbookMicrobiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Page 296
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following infection transmitted through rat urine Listeriab Legionellac Mycoplasmad LeptospiraHumans infected leptospires water contaminated urine carrier animals (rats dogs cattle and pigs) enters body through cuts abrasions skin through intact mucosa mouth nose conjunctiva incubation period 2–20 days Reference:1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2012 Chapter 342 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Pages 381-383.......


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does positive schick test indicate Carrier diphtheriab Immune diphtheriac Susceptible diphtheria Hypersensitivity diphtheriaImmune status individual Corynebacterium diphtheria assessed presence antitoxin levels schick test This test done injecting 1ml highly purified toxin into one forearm and 1ml heat inactivated toxin into another forearm control positive reaction characterized local inflammatory reaction that reaches maximum intensity 4-7 days and reduces gradually This indicates absence immunity diphtheriae Negative reaction indicates presence antitoxin individual neutralizes toxin injected Such individuals immune diphtheriae infection Reference:1 Sherris Medical Microbiology Kenneth Ryan 5th Edition Chapter 262 Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Page 224.......


How does staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis ?a. coagulase

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How does staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase positive common cause UTIc forms white colonies blood agard causes endocarditis drug addictsStaphylococcus aureus coagulase positive whereas staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase negative Other coagulase negative staphylococci haemolyticus saccharolyticus hominis schleiferi lugdunensis and simulans Reference:Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Pages 188-190.......


Which the following change observed following neonatal thymectomy ?a. Decrease

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following change observed following neonatal thymectomy Decrease size germinal centerb Increased antibody production cellsc Increased bone marrow production lymphocytesd Decrease size paracortical areas lymph nodes lymphocytes selectively seeded into certain sites peripheral lymphatic tissues such white pulp spleen around central arterioles and paracortical areas lymph nodes These regions have been termed thymus dependent regions they depleted after neonatal thymectomy Secondary thymectomy there reduction size paracortical regions lymph node and periarteriolar tissue spleen lymph node thymus dependent paracortical areas shows depletion lymphocytes while there loss lymphoid cells around small blood vessels spleen Reference:1 Nutrition Immunity and Infections Prakash Shetty Page 442 Histology Ray Henrikson Volume 518 Page 220.......


Bacteria can transfer genetic information through all the following methods except:

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Bacteria can transfer genetic information through all following methods except: Through conjugationb Through bacteriophagesc Through incorporation part host DNA taking soluble DNA fragments across their cell wall from other speciesGenetic information can transferred from one bacterium another through three methods transformation transduction and conjugation Methods transferMechanismNature DNA transferredTransformationTransfer DNA from one bacterium anotherAny geneTransductionTransfer DNA from one bacterium another bacteriophageAny gene generalized transduction only selected genes specialized transductionConjugationTransfer DNA from one bacterium another through sex pilusChromosomal plasmid DNAReference:1 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 6th Edition Page 532 Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Pages 54-7.......


Culture media used for diagnosis EHEC 0157 is:a. cultureb. Sorbitol MacConkey

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Culture media used for diagnosis EHEC 0157 is:a cultureb Sorbitol MacConkey media XLD Agard Deoxycholate MediaNon- DNA- dependent methods used for routine diaggnosis EHEC 0157: This serotype suggested isolation E-coli that fails fermant sorbitol MacConkey sorbitol; latex aggulination confirms Reference:1 Kliegman Behrman Jenson Stanton (2008) “Nelson textbook Pediatrics” Chapter 197 “Escherichia coli” Volume Page 11962 Textbook Microbiology Ananihnarayanan 7th Edition Page 2793 Medical Microbiology Jawetz 24th Edition Page 2544 Current Diagnosis and Treatment Infectious Diseases 11th Edition Page 550.......


What the major role HLA class III region genes?a. Immune surveillanceb. Transplant

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major role HLA class III region genes Immune surveillanceb Transplant rejection phenomenonc Antigen presentation and eliminationd Governing susceptibility autoimmune diseasesHLA class III contains genes for early complement components and classical pathway Deficiency these early components classical pathway associated with autoimmune disease like SLE and other collagen vascular diseases These genes thus important regulating susceptibility autoimmune disease Class III genes not participate MHC restriction graft rejection components Many proteins coded MHC class III genes may involved development autoimmunity Reference:1 Textbook Immunology Basir Page 93-42 Essential Immunology Roilt Page 2623 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 6th Edition Page 108.......


What does MHC class III genes encode?a. Interleukin 2b. Beta microglobulinc. Tumor necro

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does MHC class III genes encode Interleukin Beta microglobulinc Tumor necrosis factor Complement component MHC class III genes encodes proteins classic and alternate complement pathways (C2 and properdin factor soluble proteins tumor necrosis factors (TNF alpha beta) HSP and hydroxylase producing gene Genes coding for Class III MHC molecules located class III region chromosome between HLA locus and HLA class III molecules not histocompatibility antigens but certain soluble molecules such complement components and tissue necrosis factor Reference:Textbook Immunology Basir Pages 93-4.......


All the following statements about cells are true except:a. They express IgG rece

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All following statements about cells true except:a They express IgG receptorsb They MHC restricted cytotoxic cells They derived from large granular cellsd They comprise about human peripheral lymphoid cells cells kill target cells with low levels MHC class expression hence they not MHC restricted Normal cells inhibited from killing cells because all nucleated normal cells express self class MHC molecules viral infection neoplastic transformation reduces expression class molecules inhibitory signals delivered cells interrupted and lysis occurs Reference:Robbins Pathologic Basis Disease 6th Edition Page 191.......


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