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Which of the following infection is transmitted through rat urine?a. L...

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arrier animals (rats, dogs, cattle, and pigs), enters the body through cuts or abrasions on the skin / through intact mucosa of mouth, nose or conjunctiva. The incubation period is

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2013-11-16 10:40:15
following infection transmitted through rat urine Listeriab Legionellac Mycoplasmad LeptospiraHumans infected whenleptospireswater contaminated byurinecarrier animals (rats dogs cattle and pigs) entersbody through cuts abrasions onskin through intact mucosamouth nose conjunctivaincubation period2–20 daysReference:1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2012 Chapter 342 TextbookMicrobiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Pages 381-383
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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

All following statements about Listeria true except:a gram negative bacteria causes abortion pregnancyc causes meningitis neonatesd transmitted contaminated milkListeria monocytogenes short coccoid gram positive catalase positive non spore forming rod with tendency occur chains They show tumbling motility degree centigrade and non motile degree The major virulence factors invasion associated surface proteins called internalin and pore-forming cytotoxin listeriolysin (LLO) Reference:1 Sherris Medical Microbiology Kenneth Ryan 5th Edition Chapter 262 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Page 395.......

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following investigation done diagnose typhoid patient after days onset fever Widal Blood culturec Stool cultured Urine cultureFollowing typhoid infection agglutinins usually appear end 1st week blood taken earlier will give negative result Antibody titers increases steadily till 3rd 4th week after declines gradually Widal test used for measurement agglutinins for typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli done after weeks onset fever titer against antigen 1:320 and against antigen 1:640 considered positive Reference:Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Page 296.......

What does positive schick test indicate?a. Carrier diphtheriab. Immune diphtheriac

Subject :-random

Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

does positive schick test indicate Carrier diphtheriab Immune diphtheriac Susceptible diphtheria Hypersensitivity diphtheriaImmune status individual Corynebacterium diphtheria assessed presence antitoxin levels schick test This test done injecting 1ml highly purified toxin into one forearm and 1ml heat inactivated toxin into another forearm control positive reaction characterized local inflammatory reaction that reaches maximum intensity 4-7 days and reduces gradually This indicates absence immunity diphtheriae Negative reaction indicates presence antitoxin individual neutralizes toxin injected Such individuals immune diphtheriae infection Reference:1 Sherris Medical Microbiology Kenneth Ryan 5th Edition Chapter 262 Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Page 224.......

How does staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis ?a. coagulase

Subject :-random

Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

How does staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase positive common cause UTIc forms white colonies blood agard causes endocarditis drug addictsStaphylococcus aureus coagulase positive whereas staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase negative Other coagulase negative staphylococci haemolyticus saccharolyticus hominis schleiferi lugdunensis and simulans Reference:Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Pages 188-190.......

Which the following change observed following neonatal thymectomy ?a. Decrease

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

following change observed following neonatal thymectomy Decrease size germinal centerb Increased antibody production cellsc Increased bone marrow production lymphocytesd Decrease size paracortical areas lymph nodes lymphocytes selectively seeded into certain sites peripheral lymphatic tissues such white pulp spleen around central arterioles and paracortical areas lymph nodes These regions have been termed thymus dependent regions they depleted after neonatal thymectomy Secondary thymectomy there reduction size paracortical regions lymph node and periarteriolar tissue spleen lymph node thymus dependent paracortical areas shows depletion lymphocytes while there loss lymphoid cells around small blood vessels spleen Reference:1 Nutrition Immunity and Infections Prakash Shetty Page 442 Histology Ray Henrikson Volume 518 Page 220.......

Bacteria can transfer genetic information through all the following methods except:

Subject :-random

Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

Bacteria can transfer genetic information through all following methods except: Through conjugationb Through bacteriophagesc Through incorporation part host DNA taking soluble DNA fragments across their cell wall from other speciesGenetic information can transferred from one bacterium another through three methods transformation transduction and conjugation Methods transferMechanismNature DNA transferredTransformationTransfer DNA from one bacterium anotherAny geneTransductionTransfer DNA from one bacterium another bacteriophageAny gene generalized transduction only selected genes specialized transductionConjugationTransfer DNA from one bacterium another through sex pilusChromosomal plasmid DNAReference:1 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 6th Edition Page 532 Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Pages 54-7.......

Culture media used for diagnosis EHEC 0157 is:a. cultureb. Sorbitol MacConkey

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

Culture media used for diagnosis EHEC 0157 is:a cultureb Sorbitol MacConkey media XLD Agard Deoxycholate MediaNon- DNA- dependent methods used for routine diaggnosis EHEC 0157: This serotype suggested isolation E-coli that fails fermant sorbitol MacConkey sorbitol; latex aggulination confirms Reference:1 Kliegman Behrman Jenson Stanton (2008) “Nelson textbook Pediatrics” Chapter 197 “Escherichia coli” Volume Page 11962 Textbook Microbiology Ananihnarayanan 7th Edition Page 2793 Medical Microbiology Jawetz 24th Edition Page 2544 Current Diagnosis and Treatment Infectious Diseases 11th Edition Page 550.......

What the major role HLA class III region genes?a. Immune surveillanceb. Transplant

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

major role HLA class III region genes Immune surveillanceb Transplant rejection phenomenonc Antigen presentation and eliminationd Governing susceptibility autoimmune diseasesHLA class III contains genes for early complement components and classical pathway Deficiency these early components classical pathway associated with autoimmune disease like SLE and other collagen vascular diseases These genes thus important regulating susceptibility autoimmune disease Class III genes not participate MHC restriction graft rejection components Many proteins coded MHC class III genes may involved development autoimmunity Reference:1 Textbook Immunology Basir Page 93-42 Essential Immunology Roilt Page 2623 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 6th Edition Page 108.......

What does MHC class III genes encode?a. Interleukin 2b. Beta microglobulinc. Tumor necro

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

does MHC class III genes encode Interleukin Beta microglobulinc Tumor necrosis factor Complement component MHC class III genes encodes proteins classic and alternate complement pathways (C2 and properdin factor soluble proteins tumor necrosis factors (TNF alpha beta) HSP and hydroxylase producing gene Genes coding for Class III MHC molecules located class III region chromosome between HLA locus and HLA class III molecules not histocompatibility antigens but certain soluble molecules such complement components and tissue necrosis factor Reference:Textbook Immunology Basir Pages 93-4.......

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