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The genome of HIV virus contains which of the following?a. Single stra...

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rands of RNA and 3 enzymes (reverse transcriptase, integrase and protease) packed in a cone shaped protein core. This core is surrounded by a protein coat called capsid. This capsi

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2013-11-16 10:40:15
The genome HIV virus contains following Single stranded DNAb Single stranded RNA Double stranded DNAd Double stranded RNAHIVan enveloped icosahedral sphere has identical non complementary strandsRNA and enzymes (reverse transcriptase integrase and protease) packed incone shaped protein core This coresurrounded byprotein coat called capsid This capsid along withenclosed nucleic acidcalled nucleocapsid Capsid acts asprotective shell aroundnucleic acid core and helps introduceviral genome into host cell adsorbing readily host cell surfacesMost RNA viruses single stranded except reoviridaedouble stranded Most DNA virus double stranded except poxviridaesingle strandedReference:HIV and AIDS: Basic Elements and Priorities Karthikeyan Pages 41-3
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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

Regarding HIV following statement not true DNA retrovirus Contains Reverse Transcriptasec May infect host CD4 cells other than T-lymphocytesd Causes reduction host CD4 cells late stage diseaseThe genome HIV diploid composed identical single stranded positive sense RNA copies association with viral RNA reverse transcriptase enzyme characteristic feature retroviruses Pathogenesis: virus infects cell RNA viral RNA transcribed enzyme first single stranded DNA and then double stranded DNA integrated into host cell chromosome provirus initiate viral replication directing synthesis viral RNA and other components naked virus buds outs through host cell surface membrane acquires lipoprotein envelope consist lipid derived from host cell membrane and glycoprotein virus coded spikes constitute major surface component virus binds CD4 receptors susceptible host cells transmembrane pedicle cause cell fusion Reference:Ananthanarayan and Panicker’s Textbook Microbiology 8th Edition Page 395.......

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

Heat stable enterotoxin causing food poisoning caused all following except:a Bacillus cereusb Staphylococcusc Yersinia enterocoliticad Clostridium perfringensClostridium perfringens produces distinct toxins including several enterotoxins Food poisoning caused enterotoxin heat labile The major toxins produced alpha beta epsilon and iota Alpha toxin phospholipase associated with gas gangrene hemolytic hot-cold variety toxin produced all perfringens but most abundantly Type shows Nagler reaction zone opacity formed there antitoxin Lecithinase also produced novyi bifermentans some vibrios initiates muscle infection that may progress gas gangrene Beta and iota toxin also have lethal and necrotizing properties Theta toxin hemolysis antigenically related streptolysin also known Perfringolysin also produces neuraminidase histamine bursting factor etc Reference:Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Page 395.......

Which the following statement about Bacteroides true?a. strictly aerobicb.

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

following statement about Bacteroides true strictly aerobicb can cause peritonitis gram positive bacillid Presence stool culture indicates need for treatmentBacteroides commonly responsible for abdominal infections such subphrenic abscess hepatic abscess peritonitis appendicitis and brain abscess Reference:Sherris Medical Microbiology Kenneth Ryan 5th Edition Chapter .......

All the following statements about Listeria are true except:a. gram negative bacte

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

All following statements about Listeria true except:a gram negative bacteria causes abortion pregnancyc causes meningitis neonatesd transmitted contaminated milkListeria monocytogenes short coccoid gram positive catalase positive non spore forming rod with tendency occur chains They show tumbling motility degree centigrade and non motile degree The major virulence factors invasion associated surface proteins called internalin and pore-forming cytotoxin listeriolysin (LLO) Reference:1 Sherris Medical Microbiology Kenneth Ryan 5th Edition Chapter 262 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Page 395.......

Which the following infection transmitted through rat urine?a. Listeriab. Legionella

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

following infection transmitted through rat urine Listeriab Legionellac Mycoplasmad LeptospiraHumans infected leptospires water contaminated urine carrier animals (rats dogs cattle and pigs) enters body through cuts abrasions skin through intact mucosa mouth nose conjunctiva incubation period 2–20 days Reference:1 Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment 2012 Chapter 342 Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Pages 381-383.......

Which the following investigation done diagnose typhoid patient after day

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

following investigation done diagnose typhoid patient after days onset fever Widal Blood culturec Stool cultured Urine cultureFollowing typhoid infection agglutinins usually appear end 1st week blood taken earlier will give negative result Antibody titers increases steadily till 3rd 4th week after declines gradually Widal test used for measurement agglutinins for typhoid and paratyphoid bacilli done after weeks onset fever titer against antigen 1:320 and against antigen 1:640 considered positive Reference:Textbook Microbiology Ananthanarayan and Panicker 8th Edition Page 296.......

What does positive schick test indicate?a. Carrier diphtheriab. Immune diphtheriac

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

does positive schick test indicate Carrier diphtheriab Immune diphtheriac Susceptible diphtheria Hypersensitivity diphtheriaImmune status individual Corynebacterium diphtheria assessed presence antitoxin levels schick test This test done injecting 1ml highly purified toxin into one forearm and 1ml heat inactivated toxin into another forearm control positive reaction characterized local inflammatory reaction that reaches maximum intensity 4-7 days and reduces gradually This indicates absence immunity diphtheriae Negative reaction indicates presence antitoxin individual neutralizes toxin injected Such individuals immune diphtheriae infection Reference:1 Sherris Medical Microbiology Kenneth Ryan 5th Edition Chapter 262 Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Page 224.......

How does staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis ?a. coagulase

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How does staphylococcus aureus differ from staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase positive common cause UTIc forms white colonies blood agard causes endocarditis drug addictsStaphylococcus aureus coagulase positive whereas staphylococcus epidermidis coagulase negative Other coagulase negative staphylococci haemolyticus saccharolyticus hominis schleiferi lugdunensis and simulans Reference:Textbook Microbiology and Immunology Parija Pages 188-190.......

Which the following change observed following neonatal thymectomy ?a. Decrease

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

following change observed following neonatal thymectomy Decrease size germinal centerb Increased antibody production cellsc Increased bone marrow production lymphocytesd Decrease size paracortical areas lymph nodes lymphocytes selectively seeded into certain sites peripheral lymphatic tissues such white pulp spleen around central arterioles and paracortical areas lymph nodes These regions have been termed thymus dependent regions they depleted after neonatal thymectomy Secondary thymectomy there reduction size paracortical regions lymph node and periarteriolar tissue spleen lymph node thymus dependent paracortical areas shows depletion lymphocytes while there loss lymphoid cells around small blood vessels spleen Reference:1 Nutrition Immunity and Infections Prakash Shetty Page 442 Histology Ray Henrikson Volume 518 Page 220.......

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