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All of the following statements regarding bioavailability of a drug ar...

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at passes into the systematic circulation after oral administration, taking into account both absorption local metabolic degradation. The systemic bioavailability of a drug can b

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2013-11-16 10:40:15
All following statements regarding bioavailability drug true except:a fraction unchanged drug that reaches systemic circulationb Bioavailability orally administered drug can calculated comparing Area Under Curve after oral and intravenous (iv) administration drugc Low oral bioavailability always and necessarily mean poor absorption Bioavailability can determined from plasma concentration urinary excretion data The term bioavailabilityused indicateproportionunchanged drug that passes intosystematic circulation after oral administration taking into account both absorption local metabolic degradationsystemic bioavailabilitya drug can predicted fromextentabsorption (functionconcentrationplasma) and extraction ratio low bioavailability does not neccessarily mean poor absorptionReference:EssentialsMedical Pharmacology 5th Edition Page
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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

The extent ionisation drug takes place dependent upon pKa drug and solution drug dissolved following statements not correct:a pKa drug drug 50% ionizedb Small changes near pKa weak acidic drug will not affect its degree ionization Knowledge pKa drug useful predicting its behaviour various body fluidsd Phenobarbitone with pKa largely ionized acid and will about 40% non-ionised plasmaOne scale change causes ten fold change ionisation With change rate change ionization greatest value near pKa Reference:Essentials Medical Pharmacology Tripathi 5th Edition Page .......

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year Old patient with Mitral Stenosis Rheumatic origin admitted with Atrial fibrillation treatment for increased ventricular rate was treated with good response has since developed sinus rhythm with regular pulse 54/min drug patient was administered Grevedilolb Verapamilc Propranolold Digoxin presence atrial fibrillation ventricular rhythm regular and slow 30-60 beats/min) complete heart block suggested ventricular rhythm regular and rapid 100 beats/min) tachycardia arising junction ventricle should suspected Digitalis intoxication common cause both phenomenon The patient this question has atrial fibrillation and while treatment for fast ventricular rate develops regular and slow pulse 54/min thus suggesting complete heart block secondary digoxin administration References: Harrison's Principles Internal Medicine 15th Edition Page 1295.......

Antidepressant therapy results dry mouth side effect, due blockage which

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Antidepressant therapy results dry mouth side effect due blockage following receptors Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors Nor epinephrine receptorc Serotonergic receptorsd Dopaminergic receptorsTricyclic antidepressents cause blockage muscarinic acetylcholine receptors Parasympathetic stimulation causes increase salivation sweating lacrimation trachacheo bronchial and gastric secretions Blockage muscarinic acetylcholine receptors TCA result dryness mouth reduce bronchial and gastric secretion blurring vision constipation and urinary hesitancy Reference:Essentials Medical Pharmacology 5th Edition Pages 409-10.......

Mineralocorticoid Receptors are found all the following, except:a. Liver Colonc.

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Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

Mineralocorticoid Receptors found all following except:a Liver Colonc Hippocampusd KidneyMineralocorticoid Receptors present epithelia Kidney Colon Sweat glands and Circumventricular organs brain But they not present liver Reference:1 Principles Pharmacology Golan (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins) 2nd Edition Page 4952 William's Endocrinology 11th Edition Page 523.......

What the mechanism action Nevirapine ?a. Protease inhibitorb. Nuc

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mechanism action Nevirapine Protease inhibitorb Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitorc Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor Fusion inhibitorNevirapine non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor directly inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase without need for intracellular phosphorylation can induce cytochrome P450 enzymes and can induce their own metabolism well other drugs Side effects includes rashes nausea headache fever and elevation liver enzymes Nevirapine Delavirdine and Efavirenz NNRTIs Reference:Essentials Medical Pharmacology 5th Edition Pages 725-31.......

Which the following group antibiotics possess additional anti inflammatory and immu

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following group antibiotics possess additional anti inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities Tacrolimus Polypeptide antibioticsc Fluoroquinolonesd MacrolidesTacrolimus macrolide antibiotic acts inhibiting cytokine production possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities Mechanism: Tacrolimus binds FKBP and forms complex This then binds calcineurin and inhibits calcineurin phosphates activity Because this cannot dephosphorylate NFATc and prevents its migration into nucleus and activation cytokines Reference:Immunopharmacology Manzoor Khan Pages 91-3.......

Which one the following penicillin group drug penicillinase resistant?a. Amoxicillin

Subject :-random

Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

one following penicillin group drug penicillinase resistant Amoxicillinb Cloxacillin Penicillin PiperacillinCloxacillin penicillinase resistant penicillin has isoxazole side chain that protect beta lactam ring from attack staphylococcal penicillinase also acid resistant more active than methicillin against penicillinase producing staphylococci but not against MRSA Cloxacillin incompletely absorbed from oral route 90% plasma protein bound metabolized liver and eliminated primarily kidney Reference:Essentials Medical Pharmacology 5th Edition Pages 659-661.......

All the following drugs are classifed hallucinogens, except: LSDb. Mescalinec.

Subject :-random

Topic :- MOCK TEST 2

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Which the following drug used the treatment antipyschotic drug-induced Parkins

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following drug used treatment antipyschotic drug-induced Parkinsonism Anticholinergics Amantadinec Levodopad SelegilineAntipsychotic drug induced parkinsonism treated with central anticholinergic drugs They act reducing unbalanced cholinergic activity striatum parkinsonian patients These only drugs effective treatment drug induced Parkinsonism Most commonly used anticholinergic drug Trihexyphenidyl Patients with drug induced parkinsonism presents with rigidity tremor hypokinesia mask like facies and shuffling gait Symptoms usually appear between 1-4 weeks therapy and persist unless dose reduced form extrapyramidal side effect called perioral tremors ‘rabbit syndrome’ generally occurs after several therapy Reference:Essentials Medical Pharmacology 5th Edition Pages 397-8.......

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